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US: fear for the future of HE as “too little time” spent on int’l recruitment

The PIE News - Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:37

One in four private, nonprofit US college board members believes their institution is spending “too little time” recruiting international students, while around 20% of public institution trustees say the same, according to a report from the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges.

Featuring a survey of 919 AGB members, the report found that over two-thirds of trustees believe recent changes to US immigration laws have had “some impact on the number of international students enrolled at their institution or system”.

It showed that 22% reported a “major impact”, while around 50% of trustees reported a “minor impact” from the policy shifts on international student enrolment.

“I expect that we will see renewed efforts to recruit international students, although it will be more difficult”

Additionally, the report also revealed that trustees are increasingly showing concern about the future of the US higher education sector.

Around 85% of those surveyed said that they had concerns in 2019 – up from 73% in 2018 – with financial sustainability and price for students and their families as the most pressing areas.

Meanwhile, about a quarter of private nonprofit board members said “too little time” is spend recruiting international students, while 20% of public institution trustees said the same.

But vice president/ vice provost of International Affairs at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania, Cheryl Matherly, said that suggesting too little time is being spent recruiting international students “oversimplifies the issue”.

She reminded that between 2001–2018, the number of internationally mobile students increased from 2.1 million to 5 million globally, while the US’s share declined from 28% to 21%.

Matherly told The PIE  that factors contributing to the stagnation of international student enrolments in US institutions include visa application delays, the uncertainty of the political climate, rising costs of US college and university tuition, more competition with other countries, and concern for physical safety in the country.

In a competitive market, the US will not “reverse this trend by simply spending more time on recruiting without considering larger forces reshaping the global higher education landscape”, she explained.

“It is well known that the enrolment of international students at US universities bailed out many institutions, especially public institutions, after the 2008 recession,” Matherly continued.

“However, given the issues affecting international students’ decisions regarding study in the US, it is unlikely that we could depend upon this in the next downturn,” she said, adding that she was surprised the ABG report did not mention the “looming demographic cliff” that is coming in 2025.

“The number of students attending college is projected to crater between 2025 and 2029 by 15%, and this is going to put much more pressure on institutions to find creative ways to fill empty seats,” Matherly noted.

“I expect that we will see renewed efforts to recruit international students, although it will be more difficult than in the past.”

She said that US institutions that find successful ways to stabilise enrolments, including international student enrolments, will “be best prepared for this period ahead”.

Associate vice provost for international education at the University of Maryland Baltimore County, David Di Maria, argued that too little time is spent engaging in “strategic international recruitment”, rather than recruiting international students.

He cited a 2018 NAFSA survey that revealed that 32% of respondents indicated that their institution spent less than US$10,000 annually on international recruitment travel.

“Most institutions lack a campus-wide international enrolment management plan – 0nly 18% according to the NAFSA survey,” Di Maria told The PIE.

“Having no plan and no resources dedicated to international recruitment makes an institution highly vulnerable to external factors, such as the rise and fall of government scholarship programs.”

Di Maria added that STEM institutions, in particular, are reliant on international students for funding.

Both international and domestic students are concerned about finding a job post-graduation, and there is pressure for institutions to demonstrate the ROI of their degrees, Matherly at LU indicated – a sentiment echoed by Di Maria.

“In the US, we have a situation where the cost of education continues to rise while the return – such as practical training programs and post-graduation work opportunities – is perceived to be less certain,” he noted.

“Having no resources dedicated to international recruitment makes an institution highly vulnerable”

The AGB report also found that only 35% of respondents agree that US college graduates have the skills they need to be competitive in the global economy.

With only around 10% of US undergraduates participating in an education abroad experience before they graduate, it is more pressing to ensure that they interact with international students in the country, Di Maria said.

“We can’t rely on outbound mobility alone to prepare our graduates to succeed in the global economy.

“International students bring unique perspectives to our classrooms, laboratories and communities. In effect… they help make global learning more accessible to all,” he added.

Both Matherly and Di Maria contend that US institutions should consider pushing ahead transnational education strategies, going forward.

Di Maria said he implored US institutions to “explore models for offering academic programs abroad via transnational education”, as by doing so, he believes colleges would help to deal with two barriers to international student enrolment: cost and visa denials.

“I am expecting that we will see more US institutions offering expanded online programs, degrees offered outside the US, and other hybrid options, in an effort to deliver a high quality US degree at a lower price point,” Matherly told The PIE.

“US higher education is very complex, and leadership is grappling with a number of issues that are reshaping the industry in very significant ways,” she said, adding, “‘business as usual’ is not an option.”

The post US: fear for the future of HE as “too little time” spent on int’l recruitment appeared first on The PIE News.

Colleges worry about implications of religious freedom rule

Inside Higher Ed - Fri, 02/07/2020 - 01:00

Higher education lobbyists are concerned that colleges and universities could be disqualified from getting millions of dollars in federal grants under a draft Trump administration rule, which is aimed at increasing the legal rights of campus religious groups to be able to exclude gay students and others.

Colleges could face substantial penalties under the proposal, said Terry Hartle, the American Council on Education’s senior vice president for government and public affairs.

“Like any proposed rule, it’s as serious as a heart attack,” he said. “If legally binding requirements are going to be imposed on a very diverse industry, we want to make sure we understand the proposal in advance.”

In addition, Americans United for Separation of Church and State described the proposal as a way to sidestep a 2010 U.S. Supreme Court decision that upheld the right of colleges to require student groups be open to all types of people in order to be recognized or receive funding.

Despite that ruling, the draft rule would bar higher education institutions from denying religious student organizations the same rights, benefits and privileges provided to nonreligious student groups, based on their "beliefs, practices, policies, speech, membership standards or leadership standards."

In other words, a college couldn’t withhold recognition or funding from a student group because -- based on the group's religious beliefs -- it bars LGBTQ students from joining or holding leadership positions, said Joe Cohn, legislative and policy director for the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE).

In addition, Cohn said, public colleges could lose Education Department grants for refusing to recognize a group because of membership restrictions. That’s because the draft rule would disqualify institutions from being eligible to receive grants, except federal student loans, if they treat religious student groups differently from secular groups.

Even if an institution were to demand that all student groups, religious or not, be open to all people, Cohn said it would be deemed discriminatory toward religious groups under the rule. The ability to set membership rules tends to be more important to these campus organizations than to secular groups, Cohn said.

"Forcing a chess club to accept everyone who wants to join or run for office doesn’t compromise a chess club’s mission in the same way," said Cohn. "Applying that rule to a chapter of Hillel, for example, could undermine the group’s identity as a Jewish organization."

Colleges and universities in particular could find their federal funding threatened if the only groups they do not recognize are religious ones, said Kim Colby, director of the Christian Legal Society’s Center for Law and Religious Freedom.

Public colleges also would be disqualified from funding under the proposed rule if they are found by the courts to have violated First Amendment rights, Cohn said, such as by disciplining a faculty member for making controversial comments.

The department unveiled the draft rule last month in part to implement an executive order President Trump signed in March 2019 on “Improving Free Inquiry, Transparency, and Accountability at Colleges and Universities.” Trump’s order aimed “to avoid creating environments that stifle competing perspectives, thereby potentially impeding beneficial research and undermining learning.”

Hartle said other agencies covered by the order that provide research grants to universities could follow suit, including the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense and the Department of Health and Human Services. The Education Department is the first to issue a proposed rule.

Possible Conflicts With State Laws

The rule comes amid a debate over whether religious student groups should be allowed to get recognition, receive funding and use publicly funded college facilities if they exclude groups of people. Many colleges have an “all comers” nondiscrimination policy requiring recognized groups to be open to anyone.

However, in one case, the Christian Legal Society’s chapter at the University of California, Berkeley's Hastings College of the Law sued the university after it was denied recognition based on a "statement of faith" that chapters have to agree to, including that sexual activity should not occur outside marriage between a man and a woman. The law school believed that requirement would exclude people from the group who are gay or have different beliefs.

A federal judge last year also ruled in favor of a campus group called Business Leaders in Christ, which sued the University of Iowa for not granting it recognition after it wouldn’t allow a gay student to be vice president.

Taking the side of religious groups, the department said the draft rule is intended to “restore religious liberty and prevent discrimination against faith-based organizations and to act in a manner consistent with our obligation to be neutral in matters of religion.”

To its supporters, the rule would keep colleges from preventing groups from being able to set standards in the same way an environmental group would want to require that its president believe that climate change is real, Colby said.

Cohn said the rule could have a chilling effect on campuses.

“Rather than end discrimination, these policies perversely chill the ability of students who want to form and run groups organized around sincerely-held beliefs to do so,” said Cohn in an email. “A better way to promote diversity and inclusion is to foster an environment where a diverse array of student organizations are part of the campus community and where the barrier to creating new belief-based student groups is low.”

But a concern, said Hartle, is that the draft rule could conflict with laws in some states and the Supreme Court decision.

Some states have antidiscrimination laws, so upholding them could mean violating the department's rule and a potential loss of federal funding. Not following the state law, meanwhile, could open the institutions to sanctions or civil suits.

“Universities shouldn’t be in a situation where they are caught between federal and state law,” he said.

In addition, the rule appears to run contrary to the Supreme Court’s decision in the Hastings Law School suit, which found that it was reasonable for Berkeley to withhold recognition of the Christian student group.

Hartle noted that the draft rule doesn't mention Supreme Court ruling.

"If we are in fact reading it correctly, the proposed rule puts public universities in an untenable spot," he said, "caught between a Supreme Court decision that gives schools a specific authority and an executive branch regulation that takes it away."

Dena Sher, assistant director for public policy at Americans United for Separation of Church and State, said she thought the administration's goal was to do an “end run” around the court’s decision to allow colleges to set antidiscrimination policies.

“In that case, the Supreme Court said the nondiscrimination policies are entirely permissible,” Sher said in a statement. “Yet these proposed rules would severely punish public colleges and universities -- and their students -- for doing precisely what the Supreme Court held that they have the right to do.”

Hartle and Craig Lindwarm, vice president of congressional and governmental affairs at the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities, said their groups are still researching the proposal before submitting comments before a Feb. 18 deadline.

Lindwarm said First Amendment rights are “fundamental” to public universities, and that these disputes should be settled in the courts. Instead, Lindwarm said, the threat of potentially losing federal funding if an institution were to lose a lawsuit would raise the stakes for colleges. “It will do nothing more than force an increase in spending on lawyers when we want to invest more on students,” he said.

The proposed rule excludes private colleges and universities from its portions dealing with student groups but requires them to follow its “stated institutional policies regarding freedom of speech, including academic freedom” to be eligible for federal grants.

“Freedom of expression is a core value for private, nonprofit institutions of higher education, however, this proposal is likely to provide inappropriate incentives for litigants to file frivolous lawsuits,” Jody Feder, director of accountability and regulatory affairs for the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, said in a statement. “Given the variation in how courts in different jurisdictions handle free speech claims, we’re also worried that the proposed rule could lead to inconsistent findings and sanctions against institutions for the same conduct.”

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Louisville student distributes anti-LGBTQ literature in classroom

Inside Higher Ed - Fri, 02/07/2020 - 01:00

Ashley-Shae Benton, a student at the University of Louisville, was “stunned” to hear about an anti-gay incident that recently occurred on campus. It was not something she expected at a university known for being welcoming of people of all sexual identities.

“Since the time I’ve gotten here, Louisville has preached about inclusivity,” said Benton, a senior who came out as lesbian four years ago. “Students are prideful about being out in their sexuality. Coming to Louisville was my saving grace. I was able to come out and be myself. But now it makes me question whether I should be out.”

Benton is not the only student worried since a fellow student entered a classroom where an Introduction to LGBTQ Studies course is taught and placed a pamphlet equating homosexuality with sin on each desk. The pamphlet was titled “God and Sexuality,” said Charlotte Haydon, a student in the class. The more than 30-page pamphlet, published by the Christian organization Living Waters, starts off by describing a woman locked in a car that is sitting on train tracks and about to be hit by an oncoming train and likens the dangerous scenario to being gay or “sympathetic toward homosexuality,” reported The Courier Journal, a Kentucky newspaper.

“I want to convince you that you are sitting in a car on a railroad track with a train coming, and you don’t know it,” the pamphlet said.

The young man who left the pamphlets, was not enrolled in the course and arrived 20 minutes before the start of the class to distribute the pamphlets. The professor who teaches the course said he then "lurked outside" in the hall once the class began, The Courier Journal reported. The entire episode left many LGBTQ students in the class and on campus feeling unsettled and unsafe, especially after the university said the student was within his rights when he visited the classroom to distribute the literature and could not be legally prevented from returning and doing the same thing again.​

Haydon, a first-year transfer student and trans woman, said she and others in the class felt targeted and uncomfortable. She later learned that the student waited outside the classroom while it was in session and hid in a spot where he could not be seen by the students but could see them. Haydon believes such behavior constitutes stalking.

“So far we haven’t seen a whole lot about what that inclusivity means because we weren’t able to take action against a student who was invalidating our existence,” Haydon said. “At the moment, it’s just one of those things that Louisville is going to have to stand by or it’s going to lose its credibility.”

Under Kentucky law and university policy, students cannot be prevented from entering classrooms and expressing their free speech rights, unless a class is in session and as long as they are not disrupting a class, said John Karman III, the university's director of media relations.

The Dean of Students' office has spoken with the student, whom the university did not name, and determined he made no threats and did not “exhibit any violent behavior” or “express the wish to harm anyone,” Karman said.

"According to our attorneys, the pamphlets he was distributing did not qualify as hate speech," Karman said. "He’s expressing his First Amendment rights, and he’s allowed to leave the literature."

Still, university administrators decided to place a police officer outside the classroom where the Introduction to LGBTQ Studies course is taught for the remainder of the semester, he said.

Karman said Louisville's policy follows a Kentucky campus free speech law enacted in 2019 that broadly protects the First Amendment rights of faculty members and students. Under the law, which mirrors several other campus free speech laws enacted by various states over the last four years, the university and other public institutions in the state are required to guarantee that the “free exchange of ideas is not suppressed because an idea put forth is considered by some or even most of the members of the institution’s community to be offensive, unwise, disagreeable, conservative, liberal, traditional, or radical,” the law states.

The legislation outlaws “free speech zones” on campuses, prohibits viewpoint discrimination against invited speakers and in the fees associated with bringing speakers to the campus, and allows “spontaneous outdoor assemblies or outdoor distribution of literature” without a permit. The law does not explicitly discuss assembly or distribution of materials inside institutional buildings, but it does mention free classroom expression in reference to academic assignments and discussion.

The Kentucky Family Foundation, a Judeo-Christian organization, was supportive of the law when it passed through the state Legislature last spring, said Martin Cothran, a spokesman for the foundation. He said foundation members are at “at odds” with many political positions held by the LGBTQ community and believe marriage should be between men and women.

“We are concerned about this idea that if you don’t agree with gay rights groups, that your opinion should somehow be restricted in some way,” Cothran said. “This has been a problem at the University of Louisville for a number of years -- there’s safe spaces for gays who are celebrated and no safe spaces for conservatives who are in many cases ridiculed.”

More than 17 states have enacted similar laws to reinforce First Amendment rights on college campuses, according to the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, or FIRE, a civil liberties watchdog organization.

But the laws should not prevent professors from being able to lead and moderate class discussions without outside interruption, said Adam Steinbaugh, director of FIRE’s individual rights defense program.

“To the extent that the university is telling students they cannot obstruct a class, that is not objectionable,” Steinbaugh said. “I think if they are outside of a classroom, as long as they are not preventing coming or going from the class, I think they can be allowed to do so, so long as that is a non-disruptive and viewpoint-neutral policy.”

If the student continues to repeatedly target students who clearly do not want to interact with him, it could eventually be considered harassment, in which case the university could respond, Steinbaugh said.

“Once or twice does not amount to hostile harassment under the law, and absent a hostile environment, the university cannot punish someone for their speech,” Steinbaugh said. “If he’s preventing students from learning, that would be cause for the university to do something.”

Louisville’s Code of Student Rights and Responsibilities does say students and organizations “must not in any way interfere with the proper functioning of the university” and that the university “reserves the right to make reasonable restrictions as to time, place, and manner of the student demonstrations.”

“While the student’s actions caused concern among the students and faculty in the classroom, he apparently followed the law and university policy when distributing the literature,” Karman said in a statement. “The university values diversity in all its forms, including diversity of opinion. That said, student safety is our top priority. We will continue to monitor the situation and will take steps to ensure an environment that supports the highest level of learning.”

That's not how some students and faculty see things. Ricky Jones, chair of the Pan-African studies department, wrote in an opinion piece for The Courier Journal that Louisville “made the decision to interpret” the state and university policy in a way “that did not cast the student’s behavior as menacing, harassing or impinging upon other students’ ability to learn in peace.”

Jones, who did not reply to requests for comment, wrote: “U of L has made it clear that it is more concerned with a possible lawsuit from the student or conservative backlash than the protection of a faculty member and rattled students who are being targeted and harassed because of their sexual orientation.” 

Some students, especially those in the LGBTQ community who now question their safety on campus, are not satisfied with the “neutral standpoint” the university has taken on the issue, Benton said.

“Today it could be propaganda, and tomorrow it could be violence,” she said.

Haydon said the incident has disrupted the LGBTQ Studies class, which has not been able to return to regular coursework since the incident occurred.

“The distinguishing feature is if he was handing things out on campus, he didn’t have the motivation to seek people out,” Haydon said. “He was willing to spread hate speech and actively seek groups of people out that he doesn’t agree with on a fundamental and unfounded basis.”

University president Neeli Bendapudi and other administrators met with students and Professor Kaila Story, who teaches the course, during their class time on Feb. 6 and explained why the university was limited legally in how it could respond to the incident, Haydon said. Story did not respond to requests for comment.

“I can understand the standpoint. I don’t necessarily agree with it, but I can understand that that’s the way it is. It speaks a lot to the state of the country,” Haydon said. “It prompts a discussion on what we can do as a university, as a community, to address the needs of people who are targeted by hate speech.”

Students suggested to Bendapudi a few ways to improve inclusion of the LGBTQ community on campus, including not making the meeting times and location of LGBTQ studies courses public, and mandating a freshman course on the LGBTQ community, Haydon said.

“She seemed really open and receptive to these ideas, and I really hope these are followed through on,” Haydon said. “These are really good solutions -- the issue is having them enacted.”

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Health-care programs search for ways to help workers move up the ladder

Inside Higher Ed - Fri, 02/07/2020 - 01:00

Nursing assistant certification can get students through a program and into a job in a few weeks. But the value of those certificates tends to be low, and there's no clear path to advancement, according to health-care and workforce experts.

While the work certified nursing assistants, or CNAs, do is critical, the reality of the job can make it undesirable. In many cases, CNAs are paid barely more than minimum wage. Nationally, the typical wage for a CNA in 2018 was $13.72 per hour, which comes out to less than $30,000 per year, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

"One solution to that problem is to help people get out of those jobs," said Michelle Van Noy, associate director of the Education and Employment Research Center at Rutgers University. "But that doesn't affect the problem itself."

Some health-care programs are trying to tackle this issue and others with special pathways, articulation partnerships and intermediate certificates. These options can help students who earn CNAs from getting stuck in low-paying jobs while not requiring them to spend two, four or even more years in college to receive a nursing degree when that time commitment might not be plausible for everyone.

Bergen Community College in New Jersey received a $15 million Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grant to build a health professionals consortium. With those funds, the college was able to let noncredit certificate courses be counted as credits if the students wanted to continue their education in health care, according to Susan Callahan Barnard, dean of health professions at the college.

While the credits may just fill elective requirements for nursing assistants pursuing a registered nursing, or R.N., degree, that's better than nothing. The state also recognizes patient care technicians, which not every state does. That position can be a step up from earning a CNA in terms of pay.

The College of Health Care Professions in Houston switched to a stackable model that lets students move up the pay scale in their careers while furthering their education. Students can start by earning certificates in nine months, sometimes doubling their salaries.

But the college doesn't offer a nursing assistant certificate, said Eric Bing, CEO of the college.

"The CNA program is a super-short program where you’re just learning the very basics," Bing said. "There’s just not a lot there."

Instead, the college offers stackable pathways where it makes more sense. For example, a student can get a radiology certificate, then move on to become a technician, then get a radiology bachelor's degree or go the business route and open an urgent care center.

For "adult learners that have such complicated lives, the earn-and-learn method is such a great way to move up," Bing said.

There's a caveat: the college "spent a tremendous amount of time and money in developing programs and making sure pieces work."

Some, however, believe that ladders could be built out of CNA programs.

Paul Osterman, co-director of the Sloan Institute for Work and Employment Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and author of "Who Will Care for Us?" on the workforce for long-term care, said it's unrealistic to think that nursing assistants can easily become registered nurses because of the time needed to achieve the latter. But, he said, there are jobs in different settings that could naturally follow from a CNA position, like patient care technicians and phlebotomists.

Others believe the system needs to be taken apart. Roy Swift, executive director of Workcred, a not-for-profit aimed at evaluating the quality and effectiveness of workforce credentials, believes health-care programs need "more transparent pathways and mapping and latticing." While CNAs could move on to other programs or certifications that are better paying, "that mapping and latticing is not clear to people, and there are gaps."

Swift believes competency-based learning could help this issue. If programs were built as pathways to ensure there were no gaps between certifications, and the education was based on competencies of skills rather than checking boxes on certain classes, it would be easier for students to move through programs and switch institutions.

Right now, institutions often don't trust each other's programs, Swift said, so articulation between health-care programs can be difficult.

Cheryl Feldman is executive director of the District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund, a Philadelphia labor management partnership created by bargaining agreements between health-care facilities and the local affiliate of the National Union of Hospital and Health Care Employees. The fund's mission is to provide workers access to career pathways through education and training and to build the region's workforce. Colleges in Feldman's area make some articulation easier, she said. It's not the case in every city or every state.

"It depends on the region as to what the opportunities are," Feldman said. In Philadelphia, the licensed practical nursing, or L.P.N., program is a technical degree not for college credit. But the Community College of Philadelphia will waive the first semester of registered nursing courses for L.P.N.s who achieved a certain grade point average in their programs.

Feldman said she believes it should be easier to roll time spent in lower-level health programs into further education. But "making that happen is another challenge," she said.

"I don’t know if it’s doable, because every state has its own state board of nursing," she said. "So how do you align all of that nationally?"

Swift said it will take time to make the changes he believes are necessary. But he thinks the industry will need to adapt eventually.

"A lot of these occupations are going to change drastically because of how we change health care," he said. For example, as the industry has more of a need for home health aides and community health workers, those workers will need to be competent in several skills taken from different health-care professions. But they won't necessarily need to be experts in any one area.

One certain thing is the nation will need workers like CNAs in the near future.

"We desperately need CNAs, and we also need home health aides," Osterman said. "There’s going to be a big increasing demand for long-term care as baby boomers get older."

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Questions raised about Chinese contract with German university

Inside Higher Ed - Fri, 02/07/2020 - 01:00

A leading German university has been plunged into scandal after it emerged that it had signed a contract binding it to abide by Chinese law while accepting hundreds of thousands of euros from China to set up a professorship to establish a Chinese-teacher training program.

German lawmakers have criticized the Free University of Berlin (FU) over the terms, which critics fear give the Chinese government leverage to prevent teaching about subjects such as the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre and Tibet.

The contract, obtained by the Berlin newspaper Tagesspiegel, allows the Chinese side to reduce or halt funding if any element of the program contravenes Chinese law.

Other clauses also place the FU at the mercy of political pressure from China, critics argue. Each year, Hanban -- the agency that runs controversial Confucius Institutes in Western universities and is the contractual partner of the FU -- is allowed to revoke the agreement at its discretion, according to Tagesspiegel. If the FU wants to end the agreement, however, the conditions are more onerous.

The revelations have drawn condemnation from some German lawmakers. “The interference of China at FU Berlin clearly shows how China envisages ‘cooperation’ with our educational institutions. Independence of science is one of the most important freedoms and must be guaranteed,” tweeted Renata Alt, a federal parliamentarian for the Free Democratic Party (FDP).

Jens Brandenburg, another FDP lawmaker, tweeted that the deal bound the FU into a “tight corset.”

“With this agreement, the FU submits to Chinese laws and Chinese jurisdiction,” he said, which threatens the freedom of teaching and research at the institution.

Pressure had been growing on the FU even before these latest revelations. On Jan. 20, a group of FU alumni signed a joint letter expressing grave concerns about the university’s academic independence.

The arrangement was “untenable,” the letter said, because it meant that it was impossible to rule out Chinese Communist Party influence over teaching content at the FU. One signatory, David Missal, a Sinologist expelled from China in 2018, said the only acceptable way forward now was to cancel the contract.

Berlin’s Senate has also said it will investigate the contract, which is worth almost 500,000 euros ($551,000) over five years, and is designed to train up to 20 Chinese teachers a year.

It has also emerged that the Federal Ministry of Education and Research had concerns about the arrangement going back as far as 2018.

Critics have also voiced concerns about the language that the FU has used to defend the agreement. In a response to Tagesspiegel, the university said that forbidden topics in China, such as the “incidents of 1989,” would still be included in teaching. Some considered such terms to be an overly detached and neutral way of describing the killing of demonstrators.

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New presidents or provosts: Denmark Harford Montana Tech Oregon State Rice Skidmore SouthArk UNC WTAMU

Inside Higher Ed - Fri, 02/07/2020 - 01:00
  • F. King Alexander, president of Louisiana State University, has been appointed president of Oregon State University.
  • Marc C. Conner, provost of Washington and Lee University, in Virginia, has been named president of Skidmore College, in New York.
  • Reginald DesRoches, dean of the George R. Brown School of Engineering at Rice University, in Texas, has been selected as provost there.
  • Steve Gammon, dean of the College of Letters, Sciences and Professional Studies at Montana Technological University, has been promoted to provost and vice chancellor for academic affairs there.
  • Kevin M. Guskiewicz, interim chancellor of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, has been named to the job on a permanent basis.
  • Timothy Sherwood, associate vice chancellor for academic affairs at Oakland Community College, in Michigan, has been named vice president for academic affairs at Harford Community College, in Maryland.
  • Neil Terry, dean of the Paul and Virginia Engler College of Business at West Texas A&M University, has been promoted to executive vice president and provost there.
  • Willie L. Todd Jr., provost and vice president for academic affairs at Wiley College, in Texas, has been chosen as president of Denmark Technical College, in South Carolina.
  • Bentley Wallace, director of business and transportation technology at Arkansas State University Newport, has been appointed president of South Arkansas Community College.
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Chronicle of Higher Education: Why Colleges Are Ripe Targets for Cyberattacks — and How They Can Protect Themselves

Campuses, with their treasure-trove of data, are often overmatched by hackers. But education and broader responsibility can help bolster security.

Why Colleges Are Ripe Targets for Cyberattacks — and How They Can Protect Themselves

Campuses, with their treasure-trove of data, are often overmatched by hackers. But education and broader responsibility can help bolster security.

Chronicle of Higher Education: Free Speech or Threat? An Anti-Gay Pamphlet Roils a Public University

When a marginalized group sensed danger, it demanded action. Administrators said the law limited their options.

Chronicle of Higher Education: 2 Trustees Allegedly Schemed to Sway a Student Election. It’s Been Done Before.

The incident is the latest in a series of attempts to influence student-government elections in recent years.

Ecuador’s trial of the century opens

Economist, North America - Thu, 02/06/2020 - 08:51

IT IS ECUADOR’S trial of the century. On February 10th the country’s top court is expected to open criminal proceedings against Rafael Correa, president from 2007 to 2017, and 20 other people. They are charged with taking and giving bribes, which they deny. Mr Correa, who moved to Belgium shortly after leaving office, hopes to play a big role in the presidential and legislative elections due in February next year. His trial may determine whether he can.

Ecuador’s current president, Lenín Moreno, has spent nearly three years trying to undo Mr Correa’s legacy. He had been Mr Correa’s vice-president and was seen as his heir. Once in office, Mr Moreno turned on his patron. He went after corrupt members of Mr Correa’s administration and took steps to restore independence to the judiciary and the press, which Mr Correa had curbed. The new president replaced his predecessor’s incontinent spending with a programme of austerity, backed with a $4.2bn loan from the IMF. He expelled Julian Assange, a co-founder of WikiLeaks, from Ecuador’s embassy in London, where Mr Correa had offered refuge.

But the undoing project has run into trouble. Mr Moreno’s attempt to end fuel subsidies provoked massive protests in October, which forced him to retreat. His approval rating is less than 20%. Mr Moreno says that he does not plan to run for re-...

A share issue in Venezuela, the world’s worst-performing economy

Economist, North America - Thu, 02/06/2020 - 08:51

SOME WONDERED if the bosses of Venezuela’s oldest rum company had been sampling too much of their product. In January, with Venezuela in one of the deepest recessions in modern world history, Ron Santa Teresa launched the country’s first public share issue in more than a decade. The new equity was priced in bolívares, the world’s worst performing currency. Others speculated that the rum-maker, which cheekily notes on its website that its distillery in the Aragua valley near Caracas has survived “wars, revolutions, invasions, even dictators”, had decided that change was afoot.

Evidence of the latter interpretation is that the latest dictator, Nicolás Maduro, has recently become a capitalist, sort of. The disciple of Hugo Chávez (whose “21st-century socialism” set Venezuela on its road to ruin) has quietly lifted price controls and restrictions on dollar transactions. He now says firms can issue securities in hard currencies. He is thought to be contemplating a sale to foreign investors of a stake in PDVSA, the decrepit state oil company.

Ron Santa Teresa’s president, Alberto Vollmer, a fifth-generation rum-maker, says the company, whose shares were already listed, needs the money to buy barrels and build warehouses. It signed an international-distribution deal with Bacardi in 2016. Mr Maduro’s tentative...

The costs of Colombia’s closed economy

Economist, North America - Thu, 02/06/2020 - 08:51

COLOMBIANS PAY more for wine than most Latin Americans. The price shoots up as soon as a case reaches shore. Each time a shipment arrives, importers must submit at least eight forms to as many agencies. Officials can take up to 15 days to clear it. In the meantime, importers store their bottles in climate-controlled warehouses. When a permit finally comes, bad roads and high trucking charges mean that merchants pay among the highest freight bills in the world to ship the wine to Bogotá, the capital, where most customers are. By the time it reaches a dinner table a bottle of wine costs eight times more than in its country of origin. Its costly journey is the rule, not the exception, for products imported by Colombia.

It used to be easier. The government liberalised the economy in the early 1990s after decades of protectionism. At that time Colombia depended on exports of coffee, the price of which was plummeting. In an effort to diversify the economy and make it more productive, the government reduced tariffs and eliminated lists of items whose import was prohibited.

That openness lasted just a few years. Owners of factories and sugar mills, dairy farmers, rice growers and regional governments, which own distillers of aguardiente, a local tipple, were hurt by competition. They lobbied to restore...

Latin America’s new war of religion

Economist, North America - Thu, 02/06/2020 - 08:51

UNDER THE banner of “religion and traditional (ecclesiastical) privileges”, in 1858 Mexican Conservatives rose in arms against a Liberal constitution which declared freedom of worship and ended a rule preventing Catholic church property from being transferred to anyone else. After a three-year war, the liberal principles of religious toleration and the separation of church and state triumphed. In the following decades they spread across Latin America. Now, it seems, this 19th-century political battle has to be fought all over again.

The new blurring of the divide between spiritual and temporal realms owes much to the rise of evangelical Protestantism. Although 69% of Latin Americans were still Catholics in 2014, 19% were Protestants (26% in Brazil and more than 40% in three Central American countries), says a Pew poll. The number of Protestants is likely to have risen since then. Most are Pentecostals.

They emphasise a literal reading of the Bible and a direct personal relationship with God through baptism with the Holy Spirit. Many want their beliefs to shape public policy. Their concern is mainly, but not solely, to oppose gay rights and abortion. In some cases they dismiss science and have intervened in foreign policy. Some question the separation of church and state.

Jair Bolsonaro, Brazil’s populist...

Trump travel ban extension raises concern

The PIE News - Thu, 02/06/2020 - 07:09

US president Donald Trump has added six more countries to his administration’s visa and travel ban – including Africa’s largest economy, Nigeria – to the dismay of international education professionals in the US.

Citizens from Myanmar, Eritrea, Kyrgyzstan, and Nigeria will no longer be issued immigrant visa, while “certain nationals” of Sudan and Tanzania will be unable to participate in the ‘Visa Lottery’.

“As international educators…we are deeply disturbed by this latest travel ban expansion”

Although the extension of the ban will reportedly not restrict international students from entering the US, members of the country’s international education sector are concerned it will mar the USA’s reputation.

“As international educators committed to fostering a peaceful, more welcoming US, we are deeply disturbed by this latest travel ban expansion and the message it sends: that the US is not a place that welcomes or respects people of diverse backgrounds and perspectives,” said NAFSA’s executive director and CEO, Esther D. Brimmer.

The latest iteration of the ban will “undoubtedly accelerate the alarming decline of international students in the US”, she added.

The Trump administration claims the security and travel proclamations have “immeasurably improved” national security and “dramatically strengthened” the integrity of the US immigration system.

The number of international students in the US has shrunk by more than 10% over the last three years, Brimmer continued.

“Policies like these and the unwelcoming rhetoric from some of our nation’s leaders continue to hinder our ability to succeed in today’s global competition for talent,” she said.

According to NAFSA, more than 17,000 international students and scholars from the six countries generated around US$619 million in economic activity in 2019.

“While some may claim that by preventing legitimate travel from these countries is a necessary precaution… foreign policy leaders for decades have agreed that true security lies in understanding the nature of specific threats and focusing on individuals who mean to cause us harm—not in preventing entire nationalities from entering the US,” Brimmer added.

Speaking with The PIE News, professor of Educational Policy Studies & Practice at the University of Arizona, Jenny Lee, warned that the extended travel ban is “an extended Muslim ban as well as the beginnings of an African ban”.

The effect would be a narrowing of diversity on US campuses, she added.

“International students from these countries may continue to enter the US, but they are nevertheless directly impacted by the expanded travel ban,” Lee noted.

“The effect would be a narrowing of diversity on US campuses”

“International graduate students especially travel with their families and oftentimes with intentions to stay and apply their advanced degrees. These individuals contribute greatly as an integral part of the US’ highly skilled workforce.”

A “sweeping ban” based on nationality sends a xenophobic message that students are not welcome in the US, Lee added.

“Students from other countries, particularly from these same regions, may also feel uncertain about their future prospects in the US. It is doubtful that this is the last travel ban to come,” she said.

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Saudi introduces Chinese in schools to boost diversity

The PIE News - Thu, 02/06/2020 - 04:18

Less than 12 months after announcing that Chinese would be introduced into all levels of education in Saudi Arabia, eight schools across the Kingdom have now officially started teaching the language.

The announcement in February 2019 came after Saudi crown prince, Mohammad bin Salman’s visit to Beijing during his five-day tour of Asia.

“China will be a close partner of the Kingdom in the process, which strengthens the strong relationship between us”

During the “Teaching Chinese language in Education” workshop in March last year, Saudi minister of Education, Hamad Al-Sheikh, called for a one year intensive program for teachers to be qualified to teach the language.

Having so far graduated 35 students, King Saud University has been teaching Chinese since 2010 and discussed the experience at the workshop.

The list of schools now teaching the language currently include four in Riyadh, two in Jeddah and two in the eastern province.

In a tweet, Saudi education ministry spokesperson Ibtisam Al-Shehri said that “[the introduction] represents the first stage of the ministry’s plan to teach the Chinese language on a larger scale that includes female students” and also made a note that it is not a compulsory subject.

The introduction of the Chinese language comes as an effort to strengthen the friendship and cooperation between the two countries and to also increase the diversity within the Kingdom as part of Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030.

In his message for Vision 2030, Saudi crown prince said, “we are determined to reinforce and diversify the capabilities of our economy, turning our key strengths into enabling tools for a fully diverse future”.

Chinese ambassador to Saudi Arabia, Chen Weiqing, wrote to the crown prince in a tweet and said that “[he hopes] the younger generation in the Kingdom will be fluent in Chinese, love Chinese culture, and embrace an honourable future for the two friendly countries”.

He further thanked the MoE and stated that “China will be a close partner of the Kingdom in the process, which strengthens the strong relations between [them].”

The post Saudi introduces Chinese in schools to boost diversity appeared first on The PIE News.

Syracuse grapples with how to meaningfully educate students about diversity, equity and inclusion

Inside Higher Ed - Thu, 02/06/2020 - 01:00

Syracuse University saw a spate of racist incidents last semester -- some 16 over a few weeks in November alone. Students reported hearing ethnic slurs shouted from dorm windows and otherwise being harassed, along with seeing hateful graffiti and a swastika drawn in the snow. The Federal Bureau of Investigation also looked into a white supremacist manifesto that was posted to an online Greek life forum.

Students protested, including by occupying a campus building for a week, as faculty members pushed for change. In response, Syracuse announced a list of new diversity, inclusion and security initiatives. The university also promised to rethink its one-credit first-year seminar, SEM 100, and to work toward building a complementary, three-credit requirement for more advanced students.

Many professors believe Syracuse's response should go further, however. They believe the moment demands a deeper rethinking of the curriculum, universitywide.

Seeking an 'Extensive Liberal Arts Core'

Their idea is that a liberal arts education steeped in discussions of human differences is the best defense against ignorance. But at the very least, said Biko Gray, assistant professor of religion, “if we’re doing this, no one can feign ignorance about these issues. ‘That was a joke’ is no longer a defense.”

Gray, along with his department colleague Virginia Burrus, the Bishop W. Earl Ledden Professor of Religion, co-wrote a faculty statement to this effect. It has since been signed by 146 other professors.

The statement, sent to Syracuse’s central administration for consideration, says that the university is caught up in a moment of “great anguish” but also “unusual clarity and possibility.” That moment “clarified that this institution struggles with -- and therefore suffers from -- a woeful lack of attention to, if not outright neglect of, the critical, conceptual, and ethical importance of the humanities, arts and social sciences.”

The “obligation to teach our students to think critically and constructively about the complexities of human difference can be best addressed through an extensive liberal arts core curriculum attuned to issues of difference and diversity and required university-wide for all undergraduates,” the statement asserts. “Anything less, such as the single-course solution represented by SEM 100 in whatever guise, will be inadequate as other than a transitional measure and ultimately ineffective in shifting the campus climate of discrimination.”

Currently, arts and sciences students must take two courses from a list of approved classes to satisfy a requirement in critical reflections on ethical and social issues. This is not standardized across campus programs and colleges, however, and what the faculty statement proposes -- though not in any detail -- is a larger core curriculum.

Crucially, the faculty statement says, “Support for such a liberal arts core curriculum requires nurturing, strengthening and expanding the faculty in the humanities, arts, and social sciences.” It requires “actively cultivating a diverse and inclusive faculty across the university, since the bodies and identities of teachers are a crucial part of any curriculum,” and it requires overcoming barriers to this kind of change.

In particular, the statement expresses concern that the university’s cluster hiring initiative favors the natural sciences and steers “resources away from the humanities, arts, and social sciences, as well as from efforts to build faculty diversity.” Further, Syracuse’s responsibility-centered funding model, “which encourages the various schools to compete with one another for students, impedes a university-wide commitment to a liberal arts core curriculum.”

Finally, the statement reads, “we believe that opening up lines of communication between the faculty and the Board of Trustees is crucial to the success of the university in effecting needed change.”

While “no group can claim to represent the voices of all faculty members,” there are “some of us who feel an urgent need to think, speak and act collectively.”

Although the statement ends with an invitation for all faculty colleagues, “across schools, divisions, departments and disciplines” to “join us in our efforts,” almost all the statement’s signers work in the arts, humanities, social sciences and communications.

Gray said the statement was shared network-style, not formally sent to every professor on the faculty. This likely explains, in part, the lack of signatures from faculty members in the sciences, technology, engineering and math. Still, for a letter calling for universitywide engagement in discussions about the liberal arts and diversity, the resulting gap in signatures is hard to ignore.

Discussions about diversity and inclusion with respect to the curriculum are, on so many campuses, taken up by humanities and social sciences faculties. The STEM fields have clearly stepped up in terms of valuing diversity in terms of representation, or who is doing the math and science, with hiring initiatives that aim to increase the share of underrepresented minority faculty members. But this kind of diversity is one part of the bigger puzzle, and one that is complicated by the concern -- expressed in the faculty statement -- that STEM hiring is diverting institutional resources away from the fields most obviously equipped to teach students about human difference.

Another question is whether the STEM fields should be doing more to directly engage students in these issues.

Two Cultures?

“The assumption is that the sciences are value-neutral set of disciplines,” Gray said. And yet the histories of so many fields, from technology to medicine -- think Henrietta Lacks, the Tuskegee syphilis experiment and nuclear testing in the Pacific -- are rife with discrimination. While Gray said he didn’t expect his STEM colleagues to fundamentally alter the way they run their programs, he said students might benefit from being asked to “wrestle” with some of these issues, as they do in other disciplines.

Steven Diaz, a professor of math and a member of Syracuse’s University Senate curriculum committee, said he was familiar with the statement but didn’t sign it. He also said it wasn’t the first time that a universitywide liberal arts core had been proposed, but that it would be very hard to fit more requirements into certain pre-professional programs. This, of course, is a common problem for curricular revision committees, as students in engineering and other fields that are accredited by outside disciplinary bodies typically have little room for additional requirements.

Diaz said that he isn’t personally a fan of large core curricula. As for incorporating questions of diversity and inclusion into math, Diaz said he often teaches a history of math course that demonstrates how math emerged in many world cultures. Unfortunately, he said, there isn’t typically time in the course to grapple in any depth with how the field came to be dominated by white men in the modern era.

There’s another problem with asking nonexperts on diversity and inclusion to embrace discussions of it, Diaz said: they might not know how, or even be afraid, to do it. That goes for students, too, he added, in that those who don’t want to take liberal arts courses might resent having to do so under any new framework, and thus not absorb the point.

“I don’t really know how to cure the problems we have, but I’m not sure taking more courses would help,” Diaz said. “It’s also easy to develop an attitude that if everyone would just study more of this, then the world would be a better place. There’s a lot of that going on with humanities. I think the world be a better place if everybody did a lot more math, but I don’t think that’s the way to go.”

A Diversity Requirement

As was noted in Syracuse’s announcement about the new initiatives, the university is currently revising the one-credit freshman seminar that has been required since 2018. Jeffrey Mangram, an associate professor of education who is leading that effort, said the focus now is “trying to make the material more developmentally appropriate for students.” Earlier iterations of the seminar used books such as Trevor Noah’s memoir on growing up interracial in South Africa, Mangram said, but future versions will be based more on podcasts, TED talks and articles, “trying to think about diversity, inclusion, equity and excellence in different ways.”

Starting in 2021, students beyond their freshman year will be required to choose a three-credit diversity requirement from a list of preapproved courses within departments.

As for diversity and inclusion in STEM, Mangram said it’s important to think about how equitable pedagogical practices round out other goals. Even in those fields that don’t automatically lend themselves to learning about diversity, he said, it’s important that all students feel included, able to participate and that there is room for diverse perspectives.

Gareth Fisher, an associate professor of religion who signed the faculty statement, said he understood SEM 100 to be something of a “stopgap” answer to the university’s ongoing diversity concerns, but that any real answer “has to be built in the curriculum more.”

Already, he said, SEM 100 has seen staffing shortages, and some Chinese students have reported experiencing discrimination by instructors within these very courses. So instead of a “force-fed” take on diversity, students need the kind of depth and nuance that is embedded in a universitywide liberal arts core. That true for arts and sciences students and pre-professional students alike.

“What they come away with is knowledge about the world and how to cope, and the important questions about diversity that anyone who is a professional in our society is going to be forced deal with,” he said.

Syracuse did not comment directly on the faculty statement.

Beyond Syracuse

While things at that campus took an especially dark turn earlier this academic year, most institutions are dealing with questions of diversity and inclusion and how they relate to the curriculum.

Yale University, for instance, recently announced that it was ending a longtime survey course in art history, HSAR 115, which covers Western art from the Renaissance onward. 

Some commentators have criticized the decision, suggesting that Yale cowed to a deconstructionist mob. This fits in with larger critiques of changes to the curriculum as students demand diversity, equity and inclusion.

The National Association of Scholars recently published a report, written by Stanley Kurtz, asserting that both Western civilization and American exceptionalism are very real things, not constructs. It makes a case for reading the great books and restoring our “lost history.”

David Randall, director of research at the national association, said that losing a Western art history survey means the loss of “knowledge of the tradition itself, the continuous conversation of Western artists with their predecessors, and their assimilation of and influence upon rival artistic traditions.” Enjoying art for art’s sake also loses out to the political and issues of identity, he said.

Tim Barringer, Paul Mellon Professor of Art at Yale, in a brief email pushed back against what he called “inflammatory” framing of the survey issue in other news coverage. He also shared a department statement about the survey course, explaining that the program is now committed to offering four different introductory courses each year.

“All of these courses, current or future, are designed to introduce the undergraduate with no prior experience of the history of art to art historical looking and thinking,” the statement says. “They also range broadly in terms of geography and chronology. Essential to this decision is the department’s belief that no one survey course taught in the space of a semester could ever be comprehensive, and that no one survey course can be taken as the definitive survey of our discipline.”

What’s interesting about the Syracuse proposal is that it suggests decentralizing the Western perspective, while at the same time exposing many students to the liberal arts who wouldn’t otherwise take these course. The question for the critics, then, becomes whether it’s a win to have more students studying the great books -- or at least some of them -- even if they’re doing so from a critical perspective.

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College and university fundraising rises, but growth slows down

Inside Higher Ed - Thu, 02/06/2020 - 01:00

Donations to institutions of higher education grew for the 10th consecutive year, but the gifts were not evenly distributed among the types of institutions, and totals were inflated by some large gifts from mega-donors like Michael Bloomberg.

The latest report on voluntary giving to higher education, from the Council for Advancement and Support of Education, or CASE, found that donations in the 2019 fiscal year reached $49.6 billion, an all-time high since the numbers have been reported. The total is up 6.1 percent from $46.7 billion in 2018. Donations grew by 7.2 percent between 2017 and 2018. The report covered information from 914 institutions. Of those, 872 institutions also reported information in fiscal year 2018.

However, a single gift of $1.2 billion from Michael Bloomberg's foundation to Johns Hopkins University skewed the results somewhat, said Ann Kaplan, senior director of the study. Other Bloomberg entities beyond his foundation brought his total contribution to $1.8 billion. Without those gifts, overall giving slowed down and just kept pace with inflation.

This slowdown "doesn't necessarily mean anything in the long term," Kaplan said.

Research and doctoral institutions saw the largest increase in gifts of all major categories the survey tracked, with a 10-percentage-point increase from last year. Baccalaureate institutions saw a decrease in giving. But public baccalaureate institutions saw a 29.5-percentage-point increase, meaning private baccalaureate institutions -- which receive the majority of the donations in this category -- experienced a 5.4 percent decrease. Specialized, master's and associate institutions also saw decreases.

One anomaly was the institution that raised one of the largest gifts: Emory University in Georgia. While Kaplan said Emory is usually far up the list, it's not often quite so close to the top as it was this year. In contrast, several normally top-raising institutions saw almost no increases, and even declines.

Across institutions, alumni and nonalumni individual giving decreased, while giving from foundations and other organizations increased.

Giving this past financial year was likely greatly affected by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, the tax reform legislation Congress passed at the end of 2017, Kaplan said. Historically, tax reform has initially repressed giving, only for it to rebound, she said.

"Philanthropic impulse isn't governed by tax law," she said.

Those whose giving is most likely to be affected by the new tax law include donors who no longer qualify for certain deductions, like the interest deductions on home mortgages. Those people may now "bundle" the amounts they give each year into larger lump sums to give every few years, as large charitable gifts could qualify them for itemization, according to the report.

These households gave relatively more in fiscal year 2018, the report states, which is reflected in how much individual giving rose that year. This past fiscal year could be the start of a break before they again give a large bundle farther down the road.

Another strategy would be to contribute to donor-advised funds in bulk and then direct that fund to pay out the donations on an ongoing basis, Kaplan said.

Other trends noted in the report include an increase in giving for capital purposes at twice the rate of growth in giving to current operations. Capital-purpose gifts go mostly toward restricted endowments, as well as property, buildings, equipment and loan funds. Kaplan said they tend to increase when the economy is strong.

Capital-purpose gifts tend to fund basic education at institutions more so than current operations, as 37 percent of what goes toward endowments gets passed to financial aid, 19 percent goes toward academic departments and 15 percent contributes to faculty and staff compensation. Current-operations gifts tend to go toward research.

"If it weren't for endowments, basic operating expenditures would struggle," Kaplan said.

Bloomberg's gift to Johns Hopkins wasn't the only big-dollar donation in 2018. Seven institutions reported eight single donors who each gave $100 million or more, according to the report, which is similar to last year's number of big-spending donors. Kaplan said higher education doesn't usually see many nine-digit gifts each year.

Over all, Kaplan said this was another "good year with some mixed results," though these data don't give away much on the future.

"Each year is in its own microeconomic climate," she said.

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Colleges start new academic programs

Inside Higher Ed - Thu, 02/06/2020 - 01:00
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